An Auror is a dark-wizard catcher working under the direction of the Ministry of Magic. Few have the aptitude to even qualify to enter training, and even fewer are able to complete their training to get the job.
Minister for Magic Eldritch Diggory created the recruitment programme in the 17th century in Great Britain. Some of the earliest records of the Auror Office state by 1752 early members, including eventual Minister for Magic Hesphaestus Gore, were working to bring Dark-wizards to justice. Aurors generally keep within whichever jurisdiction they work for, however, in extreme cases, an Auror may be sent to represent the interests of their home office. Most notably, Theseus Scamander was sent to represent Great Britain’s interests in the First World War. After obtaining his reputation as a war-hero during the war, he was appointed as Head of the British Auror Office. Scamander also would work abroad to assist in the search for the Dark-wizard Gellert Grindelwald. During the First Wizarding War, in the late 1970s and the early 1980s, Aurors were given the authorization to use the Unforgivable Curses on those suspected of being Death Eaters and other criminals by Bartemius Crouch Senior, the Head of the Department of Magical Law Enforcement. Aurors had the licence to kill, coerce, and torture during the First Wizarding War. One of the most famous Aurors of the modern era, Alastor Moody, is a prime example of the dangers of being an Auror, Moody received numerous injuries during his time as an Auror that resulted in needing a replacement eye and a wooden leg. Moody is thought of by some as the greatest Auror to ever live. On 1 September, 1997, the Daily Prophet reported Aurors had their wands confiscated, and the members decommissioned. After the fall of He-Who-Must-Not-Be-Named, the Auror office was reinstated, and reformed with the help of Harry Potter and Ronald Weasley. With Potter and Weasley’s help the department eventually weeded out the corruption which had plagued the office. Potter then became the Head of the Auror Office in 2007.
The exact origins are unknown, though it is possible Auror is derived from either the Roman “aurora,” meaning “dawn,” which in a metaphorical sense would be due to them fighting Dark magic. The other possible origin could be the Latin “auris,” meaning “ear,” because Aurors largely known as detectives, who listen for information.